From Layering to Lower Toms


The recording (or playing) of a musical part with of several similar sound patches playing simultaneous.

The musical instrument that plays the melody of the tune, including the vocal.

Lead Sheet
A written chart showing the melody, lyrics and chords of a tune with full musical notation.

Sounds from other instruments and sources that were not intended to be picked up by the microphone.

A light that allows current to flow in one direction only and emits light whenever a voltage of a certain level or beyond is applied to it.

Low-Frequency Oscillator (an oscillator that puts out an AC signal between .1 Hz and 10Hz used for a control signal).

The amount of signal strength; the amplitude, especially the average amplitude.

Sets output volume of individual PA input channels. Usually positioned as sliders at the bottom of the soundboard.

Librarian Program
A computer program allowing the storage of the parameters of sound patches outside of a synthesizer.

1) To boost gain of audio at a particular band of frequencies with an equalizer.
2) An elevation device in the star trek series of TV programs.

Light Emitting Diode
A light that allows current to flow in one direction only and emits light whenever a voltage of a certain level or beyond is applied to it.

A device which reduces gain when the input voltage exceeds a certain level.

1) Short for line level.
2) A cable.

Line In (Input, return)
Where a signal enters the board or component.

Line Input
An input designed to take a line level signal.

Line Level
1) An amplified signal level put out by an amplifier and used as the normal level that runs through the interconnecting cables in a control room.
2) A low level signal such as the signal in a guitar cord. Most parts of a PA require a line level signal. Remember, however, that speaker outputs are not line level. Plugging speaker outs into line ins will result in damage to the equipment

Line Out (Line Output)
Any output that sends out a line level signal, such as the output of a console that feeds a recorder.

The condition of obtaining a change at the output of the device which is proportional to the change occurring at the input.

Line Out (Output, Send)
Where a signal leaves the board or component.

The extent to which any signal handling process is accomplished without amplitude distortion.

(Said of compressors and dynamic processing units.) To combine the control input signals of two channels of a compressor (or dynamic processing unit) so that both channels always have the same gain and are triggered to change gain by either channel’s signal.

Listen Circuits
A type of solo circuit that allows listening to a channel before the fader or after the fader.

1) Referring to the sound by instruments during a performance to an audience.
2) Having a large portion of reverberant or reflected sound.

Live Recording
1) Recording where all the musicians are playing at once and overdubbing is not done.
2) A recording with a lot of natural reverberation.

1) The opposition to the audio output signal of a device by the input of the device being fed.
2) A resistor that would have the lowest impedance the device was designed to feed into used during testing of a device.
3) To copy the digital data off a storage medium into the RAM of a computer.
4) To put the tape on a tape machine and activate the computer-controlled constant tension system.

Load Impedance
The opposition to output current flow caused by the input that it feeds.

Local On/Off (Local Mode On/Off)
A switch or function in a synthesizer that connects (“On”) or disconnects (“Off”) the keyboard control of the synthesizer’s sound module.

A tape machine transport controller where the machine will go to a preprogrammed position on the tape.

Long Delay
Delay times above 60 ms.

Loop (Effects Loop)
A signal path separate from the main signal paths where a line signal is routed out of the mixer through a series of effects units, and then returned back to the mixer. The electronics within the mixer can then be used to individually control the effects on each input channel.

1) A term meaning the same as Anti-Node (the points of maximum displacement of motion in a vibrating stretched string).
2) A tape (or magnetic film) recording where the ends of the tape are spliced together in such a manner that the tape will continually repeat.
3) A repeating of an audio sample with no gap in between.

Device for converting the electrical signal from an amplifier back into sound waves, most commonly by vibrating a paper cone. Most speaker systems are composed of a number of sources – each designed to handle a specific range of frequencies. See Tweeters and Woofers, Bi-Amplification.

Low Impedance Cord (Low Z)
A big word for mic cable. These cords lose very little signal over distance, and can thus be made very long. PA snakes are constructed mostly of Low Z cords because of their need to be lengthy.

Abbreviation for the term Low Impedance (Impedance of 500 ohms or less).

1) How loud something sounds to the ear.
2) Causing equal volume changes at all frequency ranges including frequency response changes at lower operating levels to compensate for the Fletcher Munson effect.

Loudness Control
A knob that changes the level and adjusts the frequency response of the circuit controlling the speakers to compensate for the inability of the ear to hear low frequencies and extreme high frequencies at low volumes.

Low End
A slang term for bass-frequency signals (below 250 Hz).

Low Frequencies
1) Any audio or audible frequency below 1kHz.
2) The range of bass frequencies below approximately 250 Hz.

Low Impedance
Impedance of 500 ohms or less.

Low-Pass Filter
A device that rejects signal above a certain frequency and passes signals that are lower in frequency.

Lower Toms
The large toms (up to approximately 20′ diameter heads) mounted on metal feet to sit on the floor.

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